Qutb-ul-Aqtab, Naqib Al Ashraaf Syed Abd ar-Rahman al-Qadri al Gillani (1841–1927) was the first Prime Minister of Iraq, and its head of state. He is 15th direct descendant of Abdul Qadir Jilani, the Cardinal Sufi Saint in Sufi Islam. Al Gillani was chosen in 1920 to head the Iraqi Council of Ministers following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. He used his influence to oppose the appointment of Faisal I as King of Iraq and resigned his post when his efforts were defeated. Nevertheless, Faisal reappointed him as prime minister in order to curb opposition.
In 1922 Gillani negotiated the first Anglo-Iraqi Treaty, which ensured nominal independence for the country, though Britain maintained control of the military and foreign affairs, essentially establishing a Mandate in the country. Opposed to these results, Gillani resigned shortly after. Sir Percy Cox states in page 128 of the HAND BOOK OF MESOPOTAMIA that he was the most influential "Sunni" and official head of the Arab Community. He continues, "It is worthy of note that extreme deference is paid to the Naqeeb of Baghdad and his family by many of the most influential and wealthy as well as the humble and poorest, of Indian and Afghan Muslims".